Also, as we age, our metabolic processes slow down, leading to less background energy consumption. Less exercise promoting muscular strength gets exchanged for walking and taking the stairs. This reduces muscle that burns fat and increases the metabolism again causing fat storage due to lack of activity. The result is obesity, which is now a pandemic.
All studies were performed as double-blind placebo-controlled trials with specific design adaption depending on the question that was to be answered. All, but the first, were performed on obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. In the first 4 studies, only male subjects were included (supplementary data). Approximately 900 adult subjects participated in these 6 clinical trials.
The first reason is that CJC-1295 DAC is a GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) acting directly at the pituitary, while GHRP products indirectly stimulate GH by causing the release of Ghrelin. Rotating the products would therefore ensure one method of GH stimulation does not get "worn out" from repeated exposure to the peptides. The second reason is that even though CJC-1295 DAC has been proven safe in much higher dosages than we recommend, since it causes a continual GH release (GH bleed) no one can be certain how continual use would affect the pituitary in the long-term, so it's a case of being "better safe than sorry" and never using it for longer than 6 months at a time without a break.
But IGF-1 injections may soon be a thing of the past. Future use of IGF-1 will no doubt involve gene therapy, which directly targets genes that produce IGF-1 in muscle, usually by attaching specific gene activators to an inactive virus or vector that then enters into muscle cells. Studies in mice show that a procedure like this can cause  a 15% increase in muscle mass, along with a 14% increase in strength. Gene therapy in old mice has been shown to cause to a 27% increase in strength, along with regeneration of aging muscle. In one mouse study, the IGF-1 gene was placed in the animals’ glutes and calves, which resulted in up to a 115% increase in muscle-cross-sectional area.
The increase in GH secretion due to IPAMORELIN (and other GHRP) leads to an increase in IGF-1 (thought to be the anabolic mechanism of GH).  As we get older GH and subsequently IGF-1 decrease substantially.  This decline is thought to be one of the major causes of the ageing process.  By increasing these levels again there is increased collagen synthesis, promotion of lean muscle mass, bone strength, improved healing capability, improved sleep cycle, increased energy, repair and regeneration of internal organs, strengthening of joints/cartilage/connective tissue, and anti ageing effects on the skin. 
Actually, it's under S0 because it is not approved for human use by any regulating authority anywhere. The S2 category is the one relating to mimicking effects of other compounds or GH. But you were right, the OP is fundamentally incorrect. The real reasons that Dank chose this compound to administer to Essendon players is still a mystery but we can be certain it wasn't paid for or administered for the fun of it.
But gene-therapy experiments have also resulted in patient deaths. The use of such therapies can cause the human body to experience fatal immune reactions to the vectors used to place the gene in the body. Another danger of gene therapy is an inability to control the expression of the gene, which could translate into a rapidly spreading cancer. Or the expression of the gene could spread from skeletal muscle into heart muscle, resulting in excessive heart muscle growth (known as left ventricular hypertrophy, or “athlete’s heart) that can cause premature heart failure.
AOD9604, a synthetic fragment of hGH consisting of the amino acid residues 177–191 with the addition of a tyrosine residue to the N-terminus was prepared with solid-phase synthesis procedure and purified with reverse-phase HPLC methodology in our laboratories (13). The structure of the peptide analog was verified with mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis. The hGH was a gift of Professor Michael Waters (University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). BRL37344 (β3-AR agonist) was a gift from Dr. Jon Arch (SmithKline Beecham, Harlow, UK).
Thymosin beta-4 (TB-4): A naturally occurring protein found in blood platelets, TB-4 plays a role in the repair and regeneration of injured tissues in the human body. It was first detected in the thymus, a gland that produces white blood cells. While it’s recently been used to treat horses and implicated in horse doping, it’s also found its way into bodybuilding circles. While there is no published evidence that TB-4 produces any benefit to athletes, it was added to the WADA banned substances list in 2011.
Growth Hormone (GH) exhibits its muscle building effects mainly after its conversion to IGF-1 (Insulin-Like-Growth Factor). This makes IGF-1 an ideal choice of peptides for muscle building, especially since the IGF-1 LR3 version has an extended half-life which allows it to remain active in the muscles for many hours to complete its muscle building stimulatory effects. Likewise, if injected after a workout, the IGF-1 variant Mechano Growth Factor (also known as MGF or IGF-1e) is known to multiply muscle cells and contribute to muscle development. Furthermore, since IGF-1 is a by-product of GH, any peptide which increases levels of GH in the body such as a GHRP product or CJC-1295 product will obviously lead to increased lean muscle mass.
As women age, the #1 reason for weight gain is hormonal imbalance. In fact, hormonal imbalance can lead to unwanted adult acne, loss of sexual desire, and sagging breasts. When you correct this imbalance, you begin to lose body fat, overcome acne, naturally lift and enhance breast tissue, and improve libido! OxySelect Pink was formulated for women by women, and the results are incredible and comes with a 100% money-back guarantee! Read More
Just as you could eat more calories than you think if you aren’t keeping track, you might miss some positive results of your efforts if you aren’t tracking your progress. Weigh yourself weekly. Take body measurements of your waist, legs, chest, and arms every other week. Measure your body fat percentage. Take photos of yourself once a month. Sometimes the scale won’t show results from week to week, but if you have all of the other methods of tracking in place, you’ll be able to see your efforts are being rewarded.
Fenphedra could have easily been our #1 rated diet pill for women if not for its safety concerns. There have been rumors Fenphedra contains phentermine and prescription-strength pain relievers. Any rumors of such claims are completely false, but Fenphedra does contain phenylethylamine. Often referred to as the “Love Drug,” phenylethylamine is extracted from cocoa and responsible for the “chocolate high” sensation. Fenphedra also contains Green Coffee Bean, Chromax and Dicaffeine Malate, which dramatically burn fat, suppress appetite, and increase energy. Finding bottles of Fenphedra in the U.S. can be difficult because rumors are flourishing that it may be taken off the market like banned diet pills for women. Fenphedra retails for $130 per bottle and comes with a 100% money-back guarantee. The cheapest place to buy online occasionally has bottles available for as low as $69.95. Read More
There are several limitations of our study. Given the nature of our physiologic protocols, which required two large volume saline infusions in obese patients before and after surgery, our sample size was modest. Nonetheless, we were able to elicit significant relationships of all four natriuretic peptides (ANP, Nt‐proANP, BNP, and Nt‐proBNP) across a variety of salt conditions before and after surgical weight loss. Our study population consisted of primarily females. We do not believe from prior epidemiologic studies looking at resting natriuretic peptide levels in obese individuals12 that having more men in our cohort would have modified our findings. Prior epidemiologic studies do not suggest that gender modifies the association between obesity and natriuretic peptide concentrations. We did not examine short‐term changes in the natriuretic peptide system, as a physiologic assessment immediately after surgery would have been impractical and potentially confounded by post‐operative shifts in volume or nutrition. We also focused on surgical weight loss because weight loss with non‐surgical treatments is less consistent. Thus, we cannot exclude any surgery‐specific effects. Because the saline infusion was indexed to BSA, less saline was given at the post‐weight loss visit. This could have created a “conservative” bias, eg, toward observing a smaller natriuretic peptide response after surgery. Indexing was performed to ensure that the amount of saline relative to plasma volume was relatively constant. Lastly, we did not perform a complete assessment of the renin‐angiotensin‐aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system, all of which could also be primarily affected resulting in the observed responses of the natriuretic peptide system after weight loss and/or saline loading.

Ipamorelin is a pentapeptide, meaning that it is composed of five amino acids, that mimics the body’s natural GH release.  Ipamorelin is a growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP) and analogue of the hormone Ghrelin. It induces GH release and increases the number of somatarophs(cells responsible for GH release) in a GH pulse by suppressing somatostatin.
In no particular order of importance, here they are: I swallow colostrum capsules every morning, I drink raw animal milk such as camel milk and goat milk in moderation, and I use the equivalent of around 30 grams of grass-fed whey protein each day in a smoothie (if you’re vegan or if whey protein doesn’t agree with your stomach, you can combine digestive enzymes with a vegan protein such as brown rice protein, pea protein or hemp protein for an effect similar to whey protein).
The ACMS recommended listing Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRHs), Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) as well as new individual substance entries for CJC-1295, ipamorelin, pralmorelin (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6, hexarelin and AOD-9604 in Appendix D, Item 5.
Peptide therapy encompasses numerous different drugs with varied effects, ranging from immune modulation and tissue repair to fat loss and muscle building. Our center has seen very positive results in patients with CFS, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Lyme disease, and fibromyalgia, among other conditions. Ask your physician or speak to a patient representative at (877) 508-1177 to find out if peptide therapy is right for you.
Peptide therapy encompasses numerous different drugs with varied effects, ranging from immune modulation and tissue repair to fat loss and muscle building. Our center has seen very positive results in patients with CFS, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Lyme disease, and fibromyalgia, among other conditions. Ask your physician or speak to a patient representative at (877) 508-1177 to find out if peptide therapy is right for you.
Depending on the intended use, and your desired results, the dosage levels are going to vary from person to person as well. So, keep this in mind when trying to determine how great the results are actually going to be when you are using Ipamorelin. So, what exactly can you expect when using this supplement? Some things you will see, for every user is:
Both human GH (hGH) and a lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) synthesized from its C-terminus are capable of inducing weight loss and increasing lipolytic sensitivity following long-term treatment in mice. One mechanism by which this may occur is through an interaction with theβ -adrenergic pathway, particularly with theβ 3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we describe how hGH and AOD9604 can reduce body weight and body fat in obese mice following 14 d of chronic ip administration. These results correlate with increases in the level of expression ofβ 3-AR RNA, the major lipolytic receptor found in fat cells. Importantly, both hGH and AOD9604 are capable of increasing the repressed levels of β3-AR RNA in obese mice to levels comparable with those in lean mice. The importance ofβ 3-AR was verified when long-term treatment with hGH and AOD9604 in β3-AR knock-out mice failed to produce the change in body weight and increase in lipolysis that was observed in wild-type control mice. However, in an acute experiment, AOD9604 was capable of increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation in theβ 3-AR knock-out mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the lipolytic actions of both hGH and AOD9604 are not mediated directly through the β3-AR although both compounds increase β3-AR expression, which may subsequently contribute to enhanced lipolytic sensitivity.
Plasma Nt‐proANP levels were measured by ELISA (proANP 1‐98; Biomedica Medizinprodukte GmbH & Co KG, Austria). Plasma Nt‐proBNP levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys proBNP; Roche, Indianapolis, IN). Mature ANP was measured using an in‐house immunoassay at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN; J. Burnett). Mature BNP was measured by immunoassay (Siemens, New York, NY). Intra‐assay coefficients of variation were <10% for all assays.
Cartilage loss in OA is caused by proteoglycan depletion and chondrocyte death that in turn are caused by imbalances between catabolic and anabolic activities within the joint [5]. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to correct this imbalance [6]. Although the exact mechanism underlying the effects of intra-articular GH injection is not known, GH in the synovial fluid probably enhances proliferation, matrix synthesis, and differentiation of bone and cartilage cells in vitro [7]. Studies have found that GH accelerates healing in animal models of OA [8,9]. However, intra-articular GH injections in humans are known to have detrimental pro-tumor and pro-diabetic effects. These negative effects are caused by the secondarily produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) [10].
Hey Elvia, do you think that using DAC for short periods of time at your proposed dose is still effective for fat loss? Say for four weeks at 4mg a week? I know peptides need to be used for awhile before effect can be seen. I was thinking about doing 4mg a week for 4 weeks with Injectable l-carnitine for my last 4 weeks before summer haha. In your experience is it worth it to spend the money on the DAC for such a short period?
The male β3-KO mice and wild-type (WT) that were used in this study were offspring of animals provided by Dr. Bradford Howell (Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA). The animals were bred and housed in the central animal house facility (Monash University). For chronic studies, animals were housed in the Departmental Animal Facility (Biochemistry, Monash University). For acute energy expenditure studies, animals were transported to the Department of Medicine (University of Melbourne), acclimatized, and killed following experimentation. The WT andβ 3-KO mice genotype were verified by breeding records and RT-PCR analysis performed in the laboratory of Professor Roger Summers.

But ever since the 1970’s, scientists have observed that although we produce substantial amounts of both IGF-1 and human growth hormone (HGH) in childhood, these hormones decrease drastically by the time we reach old age. They also noticed that IGF-1 could possibly be manipulated to extend life and to prolong the deteriorating effects of aging (you can read the research here).


Since I drank my peptides in the morning with my coffee (around 9:30), I found myself full until lunchtime. I tend to take a later lunch, around 2:30, so I typically have a snack sometime mid-morning to tide me over. However, I found I didn’t need my morning snack after I had the collagen. It also helped to pair my collagen coffee with breakfast, especially if I ate something that wasn’t super high in protein such as avocado toast. The 9 grams of protein from the collagen kept me satisfied until my next meal.

“We are delighted with these results,” stated Metabolic Pharmaceuticals CEO, Chris Belyea. “The evidence from the trial is that over 12 weeks AOD9604 induces competitive weight loss with accompanying health benefits at a low dose and has superior tolerability. Our next major focus is a partnership with a major pharmaceutical company to assist in financing late stage longer term human clinical trials for worldwide marketing approval as a prescription treatment.”
In this paper, we investigated whether the changes observed inβ 3-AR RNA expression in vitro also occur in an in vivo model. The in vivo model used was the obese (ob/ob) mouse model of obesity that has repressed levels of β3-ARs, which in part contributes to reduced lipolytic sensitivity (12). Lean C57BL/6J mice were used as a control. Following a 14-d chronic administration with AOD9604 or hGH, adipose tissue weights were measured, and β3-AR mRNA expression was determined. The decrease in weight of adipose tissue depots in the ob/ob mice was associated with increasedβ 3-AR expression. Further studies inβ 3-AR knock-out (β3-KO) mice showed that the presence of the β3-AR is necessary to mediate the chronic effectiveness of hGH and AOD9604 with regards to weight loss and fat mass reduction. However, an acute dose of AOD9604 was capable of increasing energy expenditure inβ 3-KO mice, although the response was less than that seen in the wild-type control mice.

The increase in GH secretion due to IPAMORELIN (and other GHRP) leads to an increase in IGF-1 (thought to be the anabolic mechanism of GH).  As we get older GH and subsequently IGF-1 decrease substantially.  This decline is thought to be one of the major causes of the ageing process.  By increasing these levels again there is increased collagen synthesis, promotion of lean muscle mass, bone strength, improved healing capability, improved sleep cycle, increased energy, repair and regeneration of internal organs, strengthening of joints/cartilage/connective tissue, and anti ageing effects on the skin. 


There is no “one right way”, to use Ipamorelin. For example, if you are using 500 to 1000 mcg doses daily, twice a day, your cycle might run for an 8 week period. If on the other hand, you are an athlete training for a competition, you might be on 3 injections per day, at 300-500 mcg, and will stay on for a 12 week period. For new users, you might find a 300 mcg injection is too high, and you will cut back to 200 mcg until your body gets used to it, for an 8-week cycle.
Both paracetamol and caffeine are regarded as being well tolerated when used at therapeutic doses and there is a low risk of serious expected or serious unexpected adverse events with these products when taken either alone or in combination. Clinical data demonstrate that paracetamol combined with caffeine significantly out performs paracetamol alone. Paracetamol/caffeine formulations are well established globally. Such formulations are marketed in over 90 countries and have been available unscheduled ranging from 14 years to 25 years. Cumulative post-marketing experience to date with the sponsor’s paracetamol/caffeine combination products is estimated to be in excess of 488 million patients and has revealed no adverse safety signals or reasons for concern with the use of this product in an open sale environment.
Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=32; aged 12 weeks) were used in the experiments. Animals were housed in separate metal cages at a temperature of 23°C±2°C and relative humidity of 45%±10%. The animals were allowed free access to tap water and were fed a commercial rabbit diet. Animal experiments were performed in accordance with internationally accredited guidelines and approved by laboratory’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
As a athlete, incorporating a growth hormone-like Ipamorelin is extremely beneficial. Not only in the development of lean muscle tissue and muscle mass, but also in the decreased recovery time you are going to experience after each workout. You can workout more, you can workout and lift harder, and you can increase your level of exertion at the gym to experience the greatest gains, as your body is going to heal much faster than it would without the growth hormone.
An Australian-owned obesity drug, developed by Melbourne-based biotechnology company Metabolic Pharmaceuticals Limited, is set to enter final human trials next year after successfully completing a Phase 2b human trial which proved that the drug induces weight loss and is very well tolerated with no evidence of the side effects commonly experienced with existing obesity drugs.
But let’s say you’ve already implemented the IGF-1 boosting strategies of adequate calories, sufficient protein, weight training, plenty of sleep, smart supplementation, mineral intake and alcohol moderation. Should you take the next step, wander into an anti-aging clinic, find an online pharmacy, lurk in the depths of bodybuilding forums, and begin IGF-1 injections?
Paracetamol is distinct from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is a para-acetylaminophenol with both analgesic and antipyretic properties. Originally synthesized in the 1880s and first released for use on prescription in 1955 in the USA and on 1956 in UK. It has been available in most countries, without prescription, for many years. Recent data suggests it acts via a central mechanism, whereby it is deacetylated to 4-aminophenyl and then conjugated with arachidonic acid to form N-arachidonoylphenylamine which is an exogenous cannabinoid (Hogestatt ED et al. 2005).
Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the management of mild to moderate pain and inflammation in conditions such as dysmenorrhoea, headache including migraine, post-operative pain, dental pain, musculoskeletal and joint disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis including juvenile idiopathic arthritis, peri-articular disorders such as bursitis and tenosynovitis, and soft tissue disorders such as sprains and strains. It is also used to reduce fever.
I have a close friend that's wanting to drop some fat before his wedding and honeymoon , I've had him on a solid diet and training regimen for a month now and he is making good progress but I don't think he's gonna be on track with where he wants to be in time. Rather than have him use clen or DNP I'd rather have him use a peptide or something safer.
“We are delighted with these results,” stated Metabolic Pharmaceuticals CEO, Chris Belyea. “The evidence from the trial is that over 12 weeks AOD9604 induces competitive weight loss with accompanying health benefits at a low dose and has superior tolerability. Our next major focus is a partnership with a major pharmaceutical company to assist in financing late stage longer term human clinical trials for worldwide marketing approval as a prescription treatment.”
When the AFL Peptides scandal hit, Calzada was forced to clarify the facts about AOD9604, and put out a cleverly worded press statement aimed at potential investors, concentrating on the fact that AOD9604 had been proven safe in large scale clinical trials (neglecting to mention a lack of effectiveness) and spoke of the success of AOD9604 on stimulating bone growth, and on cartilage and muscle cell repair in in-vitro trials (2,4). The black market uses for this peptide in muscle repair and treatment of obesity were also mentioned in the release, and it is clear through media reports on this scandal that Calzada gained traction from the profile boost (8).
I have been using sermorelin (bioidentical growth hormone releasing hormone) for 2 months now to help heal a nasty right quad tendon rupture suffered the end of December. I’m 52 years old with 7% bodyfat and am a lifetime strength trainer and former high level bike racer. 2 months ago, in spite of months of religious rehab, I couldn’t do a single right leg bench stepup. Yesterday I was doing 20lb DB’s for repeated sets of 15. I get complete blood panels every 6 months, and my last labs in May showed my IGF-1 levels off the reference range low. I get my next bloods in a couple of weeks. I was initially afraid to try this hormone due to the cancer implications, and I didn’t need it to be lean and fit, but I was desperate and for my injury recovery, and it has made a significant difference. Plus, I believed supplementing the releasing hormone vs, IGF-1 limits the possibility of increasing the levels too much, as well as causing a negative feedback loop. By the way, I also tried TB-500 previous to the sermorelin, and it seemed to make some other achy joints in the gym go away, but didn’t seem to help the quad injury.
Investigators at Monash University discovered that the fat-reducing effects of GH appear to be controlled by a small region near one end of the GH molecule. This region, which consists of amino acids 177-191, is less than 10% of the total size of the GH molecule and appears to have no effect on growth or insulin resistance. It works by mimicking the way natural Growth Hormone regulates fat metabolism but without the adverse effects on blood sugar or growth that is seen with unmodified Growth Hormone.
These findings suggest that the acute effects of AOD9604 are quite different from the chronic effects. Enhancedβ 3-AR expression appears to play a major role in the chronic effectiveness of the compound in terms of fat metabolism and weight loss. The acute effects observed in this study confirm that the β3-AR is not the sole mediator of this action. The increase in β3-AR expression in response to hGH and AOD9604 would permit enhanced lipolytic sensitivity. Identification of the components of the intracellular pathway(s) and effector(s) activated by AOD9604 are currently being investigated. The results presented in this paper suggest that the effectiveness of AOD9604 and hGH may partly rely on their ability to increase levels of β3-AR RNA expression in models of obesity in which the numbers of the lipolytic receptor are low. These unique properties may give AOD9604 an advantage over other lipolytic agonists such as adrenergic agents and hGH, which exhibit undesirable side effects when administered chronically (22).
No growth hormone, or any supplement for that matter, is never going to equate to the same exact results for every user. So, what you experience, is not the same as the next user, and vice-versa. Further, the increase in results and how quickly you will see these results are going to differ for each user. So, make sure you understand this prior to start your dosage, to ensure you are not disappointed if you do not see each one of these benefits, on the very first day that you begin using the Ipamorelin. Also consider the fact that if you use it after food, or with a meal, results will improve. So, proper timing and proper diet and exercise regimen can greatly enhance the results you are going to realize when you are using Ipamorelin as well.
Obesity affects as many as one in five adults in developed countries. Metabolic estimates that the potential worldwide market for effective obesity drugs is as much as $20 billion, far more than the current market of $1.5 billion. This is partly due to the potential need for chronically obese people to take obesity drugs such as AOD9604 and also because patients are put off using currently available drugs because of their marginal efficacy or side-effects.
Figure 1A shows the chronic effect of saline, AOD9604, and hGH in lean C57BL/6J mice on body weight and food intake. The hGH potently increased the body weight gain of these mice, reaching significance by d 8. There was an increase in body weight after AOD9604 only on the last day of treatment. In contrast, ob/ob mice (Fig. 1B) showed a profound decrease in body weight after both AOD9604 and hGH. Importantly, these effects were not attributed to changes in food intake in either the lean or the ob/ob mice (Fig. 1, C and D, respectively).

These findings suggest that the acute effects of AOD9604 are quite different from the chronic effects. Enhancedβ 3-AR expression appears to play a major role in the chronic effectiveness of the compound in terms of fat metabolism and weight loss. The acute effects observed in this study confirm that the β3-AR is not the sole mediator of this action. The increase in β3-AR expression in response to hGH and AOD9604 would permit enhanced lipolytic sensitivity. Identification of the components of the intracellular pathway(s) and effector(s) activated by AOD9604 are currently being investigated. The results presented in this paper suggest that the effectiveness of AOD9604 and hGH may partly rely on their ability to increase levels of β3-AR RNA expression in models of obesity in which the numbers of the lipolytic receptor are low. These unique properties may give AOD9604 an advantage over other lipolytic agonists such as adrenergic agents and hGH, which exhibit undesirable side effects when administered chronically (22).
The most common goal of people in the health and fitness world is to lose weight. Not only do hundreds of millions of people go on diets to try and lose weight every year, but they want to lose weight as fast as possible. It’s no wonder the weight loss industry is a $20 billion industry, with the sales of books, diet drugs, and weight-loss surgeries fueling revenue as people try and lose unwanted weight once and for all.
Simply Vital is an online service that acts as an agent between the customer and "Initially we were inundated by men wishing to find a way to add muscle quickly, but now in excess of 60 per cent of our weekly orders are women wanting products to help with results ranging from fat loss and anti-ageing to general well-being," says owner Michael Abdallah.
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