Ghrelin and GH secretagogues, including GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, stimulate food intake and adiposity. Because insulin modulates the hypothalamic response to GH secretagogues and acts synergistically with ghrelin on lipogenesis in vitro, we analyzed whether insulin plays a role in the metabolic effects of GHRP-6 in vivo. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received saline, GHRP-6, insulin, or insulin plus GHRP-6 once daily for 8 wk. Rats receiving saline suffered hyperglycemia, hyperphagia, polydipsia, and weight loss. Insulin, but not GHRP-6, improved these parameters (P < 0.001 for all), as well as the diabetes-induced increase in hypothalamic mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide and decrease in proopiomelanocortin. Cocaine amphetamine-related transcript mRNA levels were also reduced in diabetic rats, with GHRP-6 inducing a further decrease (P < 0.03) and insulin an increase. Diabetic rats receiving insulin plus GHRP-6 gained more weight and had increased epididymal fat mass and serum leptin levels compared with all other groups (P < 0.001). In epididymal adipose tissue, diabetic rats injected with saline had smaller adipocytes (P < 0.001), decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS; P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.001) and increased hormone sensitive lipase (P < 0.001) and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma mRNA levels (P < 0.01). Insulin normalized these parameters to control values. GHRP-6 treatment increased FAS and glucose transporter-4 gene expression and potentiated insulin's effect on epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size (P < 0.001), FAS (P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, GHRP-6 and insulin exert an additive effect on weight gain and visceral fat mass accrual in diabetic rats, indicating that some of GHRP-6's metabolic effects depend on the insulin/glucose status.
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Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is not only important for growth processes during childhood, but plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism throughout life. It is well known that hGH is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and lipogenesis. Therefore, hGH was implicated as a good potential candidate for the treatment of obesity. However undesired side effects, such as induction of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, diabetes, acromegaly, cancer, edema, and hypertension [10-13] rendered therapeutic doses of hGH unsuitable for long-term treatments in humans.
AOD9604 is also known as the ANTI OBESITY DRUG and has been found to target abnormal fat stores (e.g. buttocks, knees, chin, abdomen, and flabby arms). AOD is a Peptide fragment of hGH which is a fat loss and healing properties. Because AOD is a fragment of the C-terminus of hGH, it contains the fat reducing capability of hGH, but does not adversely affect your blood sugar levels or your IGF-1 levels.
Results Mean gross morphological and histopathological scores were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2, 3, and 4, and the scores were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. The lameness period in Group 4 was significantly shorter than those in Groups 1, 2, and 3. The lameness period in Group 1 was significantly longer than those in Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Intra-articular AOD9604 injections using ultrasound guidance enhanced cartilage regeneration, and combined AOD9604 and HA injections were more effective than HA or AOD9604 injections alone in the collagenase-induced knee OA rabbit model.
Results: AOD9604 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, which confirms the hypothesis that AOD9604 does not act via IGF-1. Results of oral glucose tolerance test demonstrated that, in contrast with hGH, AOD9604 has no negative effect on carbohydrate metabolism. There were no anti-AOD9604 antibodies detected in any of the patients selected for antibody assay. In none of the studies did a withdrawal or serious adverse event occur related to intake of AOD9604.
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Although growth hormone and growth hormone releasing hormones are classified as prescription drugs, there is a safe and legal way to increase your levels of hGH production. There are a range of growth hormone supplements designed to boost hGH production within normal limits. For more information, please refer to our “Natural Growth Hormone Supplements Guide”.
It is also notable that the rise in absolute concentrations of ANP and Nt‐proANP after weight loss surgery was comparable to that observed with a 2‐L saline infusion. This observation suggests that the magnitude of obesity‐induced alteration in natriuretic peptide production is physiologically relevant. The slope of the natriuretic peptide response to saline challenge was similar before and after weight loss, suggesting that obesity does not blunt the responsiveness of the natriuretic peptide axis to salt challenge, but rather alters the “set point.”
The ACMS recommended that Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRHs), Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) as well as new individual substance entries for CJC-1295, ipamorelin, pralmorelin (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6, hexarelin and AOD-9604 be included in Schedule 4.
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Over the last 40 years a lot of research has been done on various peptides developing new peptide sequences to produce new peptides with fewer side effects and new beneficial effects. For example fragments of the growth hormone peptide have been developed such as AOD 9604 which possess all the fat burning properties of growth hormone without any of its adverse effects on blood sugar or growth.