Muscle Peptides Australia strived to provide the highest quality peptide supplements available. Our research and development team work constantly to develop exclusive products that consistently outperform other supplements and brands on the market. We’ve specifically designed our products to assist in weight loss, muscle gain and increase injury recovery rates. Read more about what makes Muscle Peptides Australia the industry leaders in peptide supplements.
One proposed mechanism for reduced natriuretic peptide concentrations in obesity is the relative abundance of natriuretic peptide clearance receptors (NPR‐C) in adipose tissue.13, 22 Elevated insulin has also been linked to increased expression of NPR‐C in obese subjects.23 On the other hand, plasma Nt‐proANP and Nt‐proBNP levels are reduced in obesity to a comparable degree as the mature peptides. Because the pro‐peptides are not known to bind to NPR‐C, impaired synthesis or secretion likely plays a role in obesity.
Causing one to be " hungry as a wolf " and having a strong gastric motility, this 1er injectable peptide is interesting for fitness practitioners who may require support to finish their carefully prepared meals. This sudden increase in appetite that occurs around 20 minutes after the injection is related to the fact that GHRP-6 stimulates the release of a digestive hormone, Ghrelin, which is designed to cause hunger pangs. This makes it a valuable ally in weight gain treatments , which is important.
Both human GH (hGH) and a lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) synthesized from its C-terminus are capable of inducing weight loss and increasing lipolytic sensitivity following long-term treatment in mice. One mechanism by which this may occur is through an interaction with theβ -adrenergic pathway, particularly with theβ 3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we describe how hGH and AOD9604 can reduce body weight and body fat in obese mice following 14 d of chronic ip administration. These results correlate with increases in the level of expression ofβ 3-AR RNA, the major lipolytic receptor found in fat cells. Importantly, both hGH and AOD9604 are capable of increasing the repressed levels of β3-AR RNA in obese mice to levels comparable with those in lean mice. The importance ofβ 3-AR was verified when long-term treatment with hGH and AOD9604 in β3-AR knock-out mice failed to produce the change in body weight and increase in lipolysis that was observed in wild-type control mice. However, in an acute experiment, AOD9604 was capable of increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation in theβ 3-AR knock-out mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the lipolytic actions of both hGH and AOD9604 are not mediated directly through the β3-AR although both compounds increase β3-AR expression, which may subsequently contribute to enhanced lipolytic sensitivity.
Id do 150mc of ghrp2, 20min later 2-5iu of GH ( as much as you can afford) then be taking albuterol all day long with 25mcg of T3. Peptides fell off the map 1-2 yrs ago, all the good suppliers began to put of shit. Once upon a time you could get LR3 for under 100 bux............like legit stuff. igf DES was around for another year after LR3 went bunk with 95% of places.
A total of 97 AEs were reported by 17/17 subjects during this study. Most of them were of mild or moderate in intensity, with the exception of two SAEs, one of which (diarrhoea) was deemed “possibly related” to study treatment (54 mg AOD9604) and one (bronchial pneumonia) deemed to be “unrelated” to the study treatment (54 mg AOD9604). The most common adverse event reported was mild or moderate headache followed by events related to the digestive system, specifically diarrhea, flatulence, increased appetite and nausea. There was no observable trend between the AOD9604 groups or the placebo with respect to the incidence. The only event deemed definitely related to the treatment was taste perversion occurring 10 minutes following dose administration of the placebo.
The matters under subsection 52E (1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 considered relevant by the delegate included: a) the risks and benefits of the use of a substance; b) the purposes for which a substance is to be used and the extent of use of a substance; c) the toxicity of a substance; d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; e) the potential for abuse of a substance; f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect the public health.
DX-7 pushes the boundaries of fast acting diet pills! This formula is designed as a powerful detox with a 7 day formula! As one of the most effective short term detox diet pills on the market, DX-7 helps those who may have put on a few winter pounds. With powerful detox ingredients, this formula will help those that are trying to kick off a new year’s goals or trying to reach specific weight loss goals with an extra kick!

Amongst its metabolic effects, hGH can induce inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue, stimulating lipolysis in adipocytes, which results in the reduction of fat cell mass [4-7]. Moreover, a correlation has been found between adiposity and the reduced circulating levels of hGH [8]. When applied systemically, hGH reduces body fat mass and influences fat distribution [9]. Therefore, treatment with hGH should theoretically have a positive impact on obesity. However, long term treatment with hGH is associated with various health risks, including glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, diabetes, acromegaly, cancer, edema, and hypertension [10-13].
In laboratory tests on fat cells from rodents, pigs, dogs, and humans, the HGH fragment released fat specifically from obese fat cells but not from lean ones, reduced new fat accumulation in all fat cells, enhanced the burning of fat. In rodents (rats and mice), HGH fragment reduced body fat in obese animals but, enhanced fat burning without changing food consumption or inducing growth (as it does not increase IGF levels) or any other unwanted Growth Hormone effect. Recent research has shown AOD9604 to be an extremely potent and effective fat burner. Metabolic is developing AOD-9604 for the potential treatment of obesity. Research studies have shown that AOD9604 actually acts on the reduction of excessive adipose tissues such as those in the abdominal area, increase in muscle mass, and enhances the lipid content of the body.
Background: The human growth hormone (hGH) has fat loss properties making it a potential candidate to treat obesity. AOD 9604 is a peptide fragment of the C-terminus of hGH (Tyr-hGH177-191), which harbors the fat reducing activity of hGH, without its negative effects. In this paper the safety data of AOD 9604 obtained in clinical trials are summarized.
This peptide is a modified fragment of hGH which contains the portion of the molecule that is believed to be responsible for hGH’s anti-obesity effects. The peptide has been shown to increase fat burning without the increase in blood sugar and growth rate that has been seen with hGH itself. AOD 9604 has been deemed safe for chronic use by the FDA, receiving Human GRAS status in 2014. In addition to its utility as an anti-obesity peptide, AOD 9604 has been shown to have very favorable cartilage repair and regenerative properties, especially when paired with peptide BPC 157.

AOD9604 and hGH appear to act in a similar manner to induce their effects on body weight regulation and adipose tissue mass in vivo. However, in vitro studies have demonstrated a number of differences suggesting that the two compounds operate via unique signaling pathways to control the regulation of theβ 3-AR. These studies suggested that AOD9604 had no interaction with the β3-AR or hGH receptors (11).
SARMs are selective androgen receptor modulators. Androgens are naturally occurring hormones—such as testosterone—that regulate the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics. SARMs provide the benefits of anabolic steroids (i.e., increased muscle mass/strength, fat loss, increased bone density, increased libido) without the quantity and/or severity of unwanted effects. SARMs are not toxic to the liver, separating them from most oral steroids and making them an attractive treatment option to those looking to benefit from anabolic steroid drugs.
Just as you could eat more calories than you think if you aren’t keeping track, you might miss some positive results of your efforts if you aren’t tracking your progress. Weigh yourself weekly. Take body measurements of your waist, legs, chest, and arms every other week. Measure your body fat percentage. Take photos of yourself once a month. Sometimes the scale won’t show results from week to week, but if you have all of the other methods of tracking in place, you’ll be able to see your efforts are being rewarded.
Remember the GHRP you select is used for a few reasons. One is to prompt the release of the increase pulse in GH you have initiated with the GHRH you have selected to use. This is by inhibition of Somatostatin. So you are actually selecting the timing of the release of your natural production of  still physiologic amount of GH.  Another reason is to actually contribute a little more to the amplitude of you GH pulse.
Proposed to be the future of medicine, these links of amino acids are not just treating chronic diseases but are providing a cure, and it’s only a matter of time before they become the new standard of preventative healthcare. Peptides are legal and they are here to stay. So now that we have debunked many of the myths on peptides, you be the judge. Whether you are on board or still a sceptic, the use of peptides is undeniably increasing and it’s no surprise as to why.
The study subjects were brought back to the MGH CRC 6 months after gastric bypass surgery and underwent an identical saline infusion protocol. Subjects were excluded from completing the second saline challenge protocol if they had developed complications of gastric bypass surgery including significant peri‐operative complications (myocardial infarction, persistent atrial fibrillation, sepsis, or gastrointestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion >2 units).
The four groups showed different gross morphological damage and histopathological changes in the cartilage of the lateral part of the femoral condyle (Figure 3). Complete disorganization of articular cartilage with apparent cloning of chondrocytes in the transitional and radial zones was evident in Group 1 (Figures 3-A,E,I). Abnormal gross morphological and histopathological changes such as fibrillated and irregular cartilage surfaces, disappearance of surface-layer cells, and slightly diffused cell growth in the transitional and radial zones were observed in Group 2 (Figures 3-B,F,J). Erosion of the articular cartilage, cleft, and cell cloning in the transitional and radial zones were noted in Group 3 (Figures 3-C,G,K). Softening of articular cartilage and surface irregularities were noted in Group 4 (Figures 3-D,H,L).
Among peptide hormones are a group of substances that are capable of increasing the release of growth hormone. One such hormone is have developed synthetic peptide hormones, known as secretagogues, that also stimulate the release of hGH. These include substances such as GHRP6 and CJC-1295 which will be covered in greater detail elsewhere.growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). This is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus of the brain. This hormone binds to the growth hormone releasing hormone receptor to stimulate the release of growth hormone. Over recent years, pharmaceutical companies
If there's one thing that science has definitively said about AOD9604, it is that it is safe and has no side effects. Calzada, after trying the peptide out as an anti-obesity and anti-arthritic, has succeeded in having the peptide declared "Generally regarded as safe" by the FDA, which makes it legal to use as a food additive in America. Calzada, seemingly under no pretense that their product has pharmaceutical properties, is now trying to break into the US over the counter supplement and "Nutraceutical" market with AOD9604 (2,4). Interestingly, the compound has only been approved for use in levels of up to 1mg per day (2), whereas the doses used in trials generally hovered around 500ug/kg (5,6), which means a 100kg person was receiving 50mg of the peptide daily. There is no science behind the peptide, or the dosage, and Calzada themselves have previously said AOD9604 is not effective orally (2).

But gene-therapy experiments have also resulted in patient deaths. The use of such therapies can cause the human body to experience fatal immune reactions to the vectors used to place the gene in the body. Another danger of gene therapy is an inability to control the expression of the gene, which could translate into a rapidly spreading cancer. Or the expression of the gene could spread from skeletal muscle into heart muscle, resulting in excessive heart muscle growth (known as left ventricular hypertrophy, or “athlete’s heart) that can cause premature heart failure.
Phenylephrine is readily eliminated by sulphate conjugation in the intestinal wall, and oxidative deamination by monoamine oxidative glucuronidation in the liver. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors can enhance the limited potential of phenylephrine for cardiac and pressor effects, by reducing metabolism. As a largely specific alpha adrenergic drug, with very weak beta agonism, there is little direct cardiac effect. However, in higher doses, there can be increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a reflex bradycardia. As an adrenergic agonist there is the potential to interact with other sympathomimetic drugs. In overdose phenylephrine can cause hypertension, headaches seizures tachycardia, and vomiting. There has been no evidence from carcinogenicity studies in rodents of any enhanced cancer risk over prolonged exposure.

Causing one to be " hungry as a wolf " and having a strong gastric motility, this 1er injectable peptide is interesting for fitness practitioners who may require support to finish their carefully prepared meals. This sudden increase in appetite that occurs around 20 minutes after the injection is related to the fact that GHRP-6 stimulates the release of a digestive hormone, Ghrelin, which is designed to cause hunger pangs. This makes it a valuable ally in weight gain treatments , which is important.
I was keen to try out CJC 1295 because my gym buddies had been using it for a while with fast and positive results. Though I was a bit nervous about injecting myself! To my surprise, it was easier than I expected. So I ordered online with Peptides Clinics and received a fast and efficient service. Everything came packaged in ice packs and with relevant info. Initially, I tried with the lowest dosage of CJC-1295 which was 10 mg for 10 weeks. It wasn’t look before I was seeing results. In fact, I noticed pretty quickly an increase in lean muscle, and couldn’t believe the amount of weight I lost! Brilliant! But, I have been advised to try out the CJC 1295 Ipamorelin combination, which I will do soon!
AOD9604 is promoted heavily by various manufacturers as a substance that is able to burn fat and assist in the repair of muscle and cartilage. The fact that this product derives from, and claims to mimic the effects of a powerfully anabolic banned substance provides a psychological incentive to many potential users, as does the attention drawn by the AFL "peptides" scandal of early 2013 and the subsequent report by the Australian Crime Commission (1).
In June 2011 the Advisory Committee on Medicines Scheduling was referred a proposal by the delegate to consider up-scheduling of five (5) then unscheduled substances contained in cold and cough preparations into Schedule 2. One of these substances was phenylephrine and many public submissions received rejected this proposal on the grounds of the paracetamol/phenylephrine exemptions in the Schedule 2 entry. The committee made similar comments and the delegate agreed that the current exempt from scheduling status of phenylephrine was appropriate.

AOD9604: AOD9604 is a synthetic peptide taken orally. The small peptide mimics a section of the growth hormone molecule which increases fat metabolism and decreases the production of fat. AOD9604 is claimed to reduce fat, increase muscle mass and possibly help recover from joint cartilage damage. However, there is currently no published human data to support these claims. AOD9604 is not approved for human use, but is used in sport for weight loss and muscle enhancement and the perception that it helps recover from tissue damage. This drug was highlighted in the Australian Crime Commission report on Organised Crime and Drugs in Sport. No significant adverse effects have been reported yet, but AOD9604 is now prohibited by WADA.
The four groups showed different gross morphological damage and histopathological changes in the cartilage of the lateral part of the femoral condyle (Figure 3). Complete disorganization of articular cartilage with apparent cloning of chondrocytes in the transitional and radial zones was evident in Group 1 (Figures 3-A,E,I). Abnormal gross morphological and histopathological changes such as fibrillated and irregular cartilage surfaces, disappearance of surface-layer cells, and slightly diffused cell growth in the transitional and radial zones were observed in Group 2 (Figures 3-B,F,J). Erosion of the articular cartilage, cleft, and cell cloning in the transitional and radial zones were noted in Group 3 (Figures 3-C,G,K). Softening of articular cartilage and surface irregularities were noted in Group 4 (Figures 3-D,H,L).
Taking it consistently for about 3 months and my BF was consistent (say 12-13%). Then, on a not so strict diet, I just seemed to lose an inch in my waist, maybe going consistenly 12% BF or lower...not sure. No change in AAS 250test/400Deca EW) or other supps. Strength was never an issue and never pushed myself to the limit on lifting but felt I could do even more than I did.
Our customers are forever our highest need. We enthusiastically guarantee to make the greater part of your encounters with our banded together peptide organization is an ensured achievement. By doing this, we realize that we likewise increment our capability of procuring your trust and setting up a long standing and commonly advantageous relationship. We trust that you will allow us to give you the quality items that you require!
Very tough to say. I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever. I could possibly help but would need to see your health history, blood, biomarkers, etc. I'd be happy to help you via a personal one-on-one consult. Just go to https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/coaching. and then choose a 20 or 60 minute consult, whichever you'd prefer. I can schedule ASAP after you get that.
In a statement to Fairfax Media on Thursday, Calzada Ltd said: ''The US generally recognised as safe 'GRAS' status is being explored as another viable commercial path for the company to pursue to potentially derive early revenue. Whilst AOD-9604 was not successful in human trials aimed at obesity, the Company believes there is sufficient efficacy data to enable a potential food, drink or dietary supplement product to be successfully marketed in the US.''

CJC-1295 10mg (Up to 10 Weeks): Started Wednesday 21 st September 2016 weight 122 kilo. Belly measurement 122cm Thursday 22nd September Weight @ 3pm 118.5 kilo Belly Measurement 117cm Morning and night 3 pumps Stacking with CJC1295 injectable. Lots of energy feel great aches and pains starting to subside.I will be doing a few more courses in the near future. THANKS Peptideclinics.com.au Awesome products. Shane Ridley

OxySelect Pink is an advanced thermogenic and is the only diet pill specifically formulated to enhance the curves of a woman’s body. While other products contain stimulants and huge quantities of dubious fillers and preservatives, OxySelect Pink uses clinically-tested, all-natural extracts designed to help you lose weight. OxySelect Pink is one of the best choices for women looking to get leaner.
Application would result in all current OTC paracetamol/ phenylephrine products being up-scheduled to S3. Applicant’s justification for changing current combination products from exempt or S2 to S3 is on theoretical basis only, and no evidence provided of clinical risk. Pharmacokinetic study found that co-administration of paracetamol with phenylephrine increased plasma phenylephrine levels – applicant says this has potential for cardiac safety risk in susceptible patients.
In plasma, different isoforms and fragments of hGH were found [10]. Research on specific domains and fractions of the protein revealed that they can be assigned to different actions of the protein: In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that several fragments of the amino terminal region of hGH, namely 1-15, 1-42, 6-13, and 32-46, exhibit an insulin-potentiating action [14-16]. The region hGH 108-129 was found to evoke high mitogenic responses [17], while the carboxy terminus hGH177-191 seemed to be a lipid mobilizing domain, inhibiting the acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in adipocytes and hepatocytes [18].
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It is not advisable to generalize our results for the OA in a rabbit model because of the small sample size of this study. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups are necessary to establish the validity of our results. Moreover, the different effects caused by varying intra-articular dosages, formulations, and injection intervals need to be assessed.

There is the potential for the side effects associated with use of growth hormone when growth hormone secretagogues are used, particularly if the use is not under medical supervision. There are limited data on the safety of intravenous and subcutaneous use of AOD-9604 and on the long-term oral use of AOD-9604 in doses in excess of those used in clinical trials.
Very tough to say. I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever. I could possibly help but would need to see your health history, blood, biomarkers, etc. I'd be happy to help you via a personal one-on-one consult. Just go to https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/coaching. and then choose a 20 or 60 minute consult, whichever you'd prefer. I can schedule ASAP after you get that.
Following amplification, PCR products were electrophoresed on 1.3% agarose gels and transferred onto Hybond N+ membranes (RPN 303B, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) by Southern blotting in 0.4 M NaOH/1 M NaCl. The membranes were rinsed for 5 min in 0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)/1 M NaCl and then in 0.3 M NaCl/30 mM sodium citrate, and air dried. Membranes were apposed directly to a phosphor imager screen for 18 h, and scanned using a Storm PhosphorImager and data quantitated using MCID software (Imaging Research, Inc., St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada). The β3-AR product bands were normalized against the β-actin control, averaged, and RNA isolated from treated animals was expressed against control animals.
Results Mean gross morphological and histopathological scores were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2, 3, and 4, and the scores were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. The lameness period in Group 4 was significantly shorter than those in Groups 1, 2, and 3. The lameness period in Group 1 was significantly longer than those in Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Intra-articular AOD9604 injections using ultrasound guidance enhanced cartilage regeneration, and combined AOD9604 and HA injections were more effective than HA or AOD9604 injections alone in the collagenase-induced knee OA rabbit model.

Obesity affects more than one‐third of US adults1 and is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.2, 3 A significant proportion of the cardiovascular risk in obese people is attributed to the development of hypertension,4, 5 which predisposes them to increased risk of atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and stroke.6 Abnormal salt handling is thought to be one of the mechanisms underlying obesity‐related hypertension.7, 8

Abellan R, Ventura R, Palmi I, di Carlo S, Bacosi A, Bellver M, Olive R, Pascual JA, Pacifici R, Segura J, Zuccaro P, Pichini S. Immunoassays for the measurement of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3, and ICTP as indirect biomarkers of recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. Values in selected population of athletes. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008 Nov 4;48(3):844-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2008.05.037.
After the commencement of active treatment, 78.7% of subjects experienced at least one AE, with the incidence ranging from 75.6% to 83.2% across all treatment groups (83.2% placebo group; 75.6% 0.25 mg AOD9604 group). There was a high incidence of infections and infestations (46.8%, mainly nasopharyngitis, 17.1%), nervous system disorders (30.1%, mainly headache, 25.9%), musculo-skeletal and connective tissue disorders (25.5%, mainly back pain, 8.2%), and gastrointestinal disorders (22.9%, mainly diarrhea, 7.8%). Although the percentage of subjects experiencing AEs in these body systems is higher than in the run-in period there was no obvious pattern with respect to treatment received, suggesting that the increase was likely due to the longer period of assessment in the active treatment phase.

Figure 2. A, Concentrations of plasma mature BNP levels at baseline and at 40, 80, 120, and 180 minutes after the start of saline infusion. Solid line with squares represents pre‐bypass surgery subjects and dotted line with triangles represents post‐bypass surgery subjects. B, Concentrations of plasma Nt‐proBNP levels at baseline and at 40, 80, 120, and 180 minutes after the start of saline infusion. Solid line with squares represents pre‐bypass surgery subjects and dotted line with triangles represents post‐bypass surgery subjects. BNP indicates B‐type natriuretic peptide; Nt‐proBNP, N‐terminal pro‐BNP.
A study research coordinator screened charts for eligibility from a pool of patients who were referred to the weight center of the Massachusetts General Hospital for Roux‐en‐Y gastric bypass surgery. Eligible patients were informed about the details of the research protocol, including the need for 2 saline infusion visits at the Clinical Research Center (CRC) 6 months apart. A study physician investigator verified the medical history of study participants including the use of medications at the time of the saline protocol visit. The subjects were asked to keep a detailed diary of all the food and beverages consumed for the 48 hours prior to each study visit to estimate their nutritional status.
Because these peptides are so numerous and variable in structure, their effects are likewise varied and wide-ranging. One class of these peptides are known as growth hormone secretagogues, and cause the secretion of one’s own, natural hGH in the body. These peptides have been shown to be very useful in the treatment of age-related conditions, osteoporosis, obesity, and various chronic inflammatory diseases, and have several advantages over traditional hGH administration.
Despite its announcement to the stock exchange in 2007 that trials showed at 24 weeks participants lost one kilogram at best, only last month Metabolic told its patent holders that it was going ahead with attempting to license the product in the US for use in sports drinks and dietary supplements. It is also pursuing commercial opportunities in the veterinary industry. This is after its chief, David Kenley, admitted several months ago that there is no proof it had any body-enhancing effects in humans.
Five of the submissions did not support the proposal while the sixth submission did. The former contend that potential risks of inadvertent use of caffeine in those at risk of an adverse event will be increased if selection of an analgesic is made without the assistance or intervention of a healthcare professional. There was also concern that the proposed exemption may result in an increase in liver damage due to excessive consumption of such a product. This was likely to result from people abusing these products as a source of stimulants.
Amongst its metabolic effects, hGH can induce inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue, stimulating lipolysis in adipocytes, which results in the reduction of fat cell mass [4-7]. Moreover, a correlation has been found between adiposity and the reduced circulating levels of hGH [8]. When applied systemically, hGH reduces body fat mass and influences fat distribution [9]. Therefore, treatment with hGH should theoretically have a positive impact on obesity. However, long term treatment with hGH is associated with various health risks, including glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, diabetes, acromegaly, cancer, edema, and hypertension [10-13].
Another way GH helps with fat loss is that it maintains blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose uptake into peripheral cells, decreasing glucose oxidation for energy in the cells, and therefore increasing glucose production in cells from fat and amino acids (gluconeogenesis) (Copeland 1994, Ho 1996). The free fatty acids in the blood from lipolysis also partially block the insulin receptors on cell membranes, decreasing the effectiveness of insulin in triggering the removal of glucose from the blood, causing insulin resistance, or decreased insulin sensitivity. These all result in fat loss, especially from hard to move intra-abdominal fat stores (Johannsson 1997).
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