Paracetamol has long been considered very safe, without the risks of gastric injury associated with aspirin and NSAIDs. But there are distinct risks of liver injury, usually following overdose situations. In response many international regulatory authorities have taken steps to reduce the pack sizes of paracetamol, and to restrict release in some environments to pharmacies. In the USA, FDA has required prescription acetaminophen, when it is usually combined with an opioid, to reduce the dose per dose unit to 325 mg, but without reducing the maximal daily dose. No change of dosing in the USA has yet come for OTC acetaminophen. Use of paracetamol should be kept to a minimum in patients with underlying liver and renal disease. It can reduce the effects of lithium, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and methotrexate. However, it remains one of the safest and most effective analgesic drugs, particularly in the elderly where the risks of gastric bleeding with NSAIDs are more common, and carries minimal side effects.
Endurobol (GW501516): Classified under a group of drugs called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, Endurobol’s potential abuse in athletes is based on animal studies that showed it could improve endurance, increase fat metabolism, improve glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue, and increase in muscle gene expression. At the moment, there is insufficient evidence for these sport performance outcomes in humans. Human side-effects are currently also unknown. Endurobol is prohibited both in and out of competition under WADA’s Prohibited List.
Paracetamol is distinct from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is a para-acetylaminophenol with both analgesic and antipyretic properties. Originally synthesized in the 1880s and first released for use on prescription in 1955 in the USA and on 1956 in UK. It has been available in most countries, without prescription, for many years. Recent data suggests it acts via a central mechanism, whereby it is deacetylated to 4-aminophenyl and then conjugated with arachidonic acid to form N-arachidonoylphenylamine which is an exogenous cannabinoid (Hogestatt ED et al. 2005).
The study subjects were brought back to the MGH CRC 6 months after gastric bypass surgery and underwent an identical saline infusion protocol. Subjects were excluded from completing the second saline challenge protocol if they had developed complications of gastric bypass surgery including significant peri‐operative complications (myocardial infarction, persistent atrial fibrillation, sepsis, or gastrointestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion >2 units).
Paracetamol has long been considered very safe, without the risks of gastric injury associated with aspirin and NSAIDs. But there are distinct risks of liver injury, usually following overdose situations. In response many international regulatory authorities have taken steps to reduce the pack sizes of paracetamol, and to restrict release in some environments to pharmacies. In the USA, FDA has required prescription acetaminophen, when it is usually combined with an opioid, to reduce the dose per dose unit to 325 mg, but without reducing the maximal daily dose. No change of dosing in the USA has yet come for OTC acetaminophen. Use of paracetamol should be kept to a minimum in patients with underlying liver and renal disease. It can reduce the effects of lithium, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and methotrexate. However, it remains one of the safest and most effective analgesic drugs, particularly in the elderly where the risks of gastric bleeding with NSAIDs are more common, and carries minimal side effects.
Proposed to be the future of medicine, these links of amino acids are not just treating chronic diseases but are providing a cure, and it’s only a matter of time before they become the new standard of preventative healthcare. Peptides are legal and they are here to stay. So now that we have debunked many of the myths on peptides, you be the judge. Whether you are on board or still a sceptic, the use of peptides is undeniably increasing and it’s no surprise as to why.

Hey Elvia, do you think that using DAC for short periods of time at your proposed dose is still effective for fat loss? Say for four weeks at 4mg a week? I know peptides need to be used for awhile before effect can be seen. I was thinking about doing 4mg a week for 4 weeks with Injectable l-carnitine for my last 4 weeks before summer haha. In your experience is it worth it to spend the money on the DAC for such a short period?
The medicines delegate referred the proposal to upschedule paracetamol/ibuprofen from Schedule 2 to Schedule 3 to the Advisory Committee on Medicines Scheduling (ACMS) in early 2011. The proposal was submitted by the Advisory Committee on Non-Prescription Medicines (ACNM) as they were currently assessing a product in which the sponsor did not satisfactorily establish the efficacy and safety of the product and that public health concerns raised during the assessment of the product could be addressed by access to a pharmacist. AFT Pharmaceuticals had submitted a product application with the TGA at the time of this item being considered by the delegate and ACMS.
The levels of plasma glycerol were determined according to the method previously described (8) and expressed as a change from d 0 values. The amount of glycerol present in the plasma was enzymatically assayed using glycerol phosphate oxidase reactions (catalog no. GPO-337, Sigma Diagnostics, St. Louis, MO). Plasma glycerol was determined using a spectrophotometer and converted to micromoles per deciliter.

Resting plasma concentrations (mean±SEM) of mature ANP and Nt‐proANP were 14±2 pg/mL and 4±0.6 pg/mL at baseline. After gastric bypass surgery, the resting plasma concentrations rose to 24±5 pg/mL and 7±0.7 pg/mL for ANP and Nt‐proANP (increased by 23% and 43%), respectively (P=0.016 and 0.008). Absolute concentrations of ANP and Nt‐proANP were higher in individuals after bypass surgery at all acute time points during and after administration of intravenous saline (Figure 1A and 1B; P<0.001). A secondary analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and mean arterial pressure yielded similar results.


Whilst AOD9604 is not approved by the Australian TGA, it can be legally obtained on a doctor's prescription and dispensed by a compounding pharmacy (2). This is true of many experimental substances, but it does big favours for the reputation of AOD9604, giving the impression that, like other drugs issued by the medical profession, it is an efficacious and high quality product. These reasons, when considered together, give a powerful impression that peptides are highly effective – they wouldn't ban them for no reason, would they?
As in the previous study there were no clinically relevant changes observed in safety laboratory parameters 24 hours following administration of AOD9604 or placebo. Similarly, there were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs (blood pressure, radial pulse rate and temperature) or ECGs recorded at any of the scheduled time points up to 24 hours post dose. There were no significant changes in glucose or IGF-1 levels following AOD9604 treatment compared with placebo.

Simply Vital is an online service that acts as an agent between the customer and "Initially we were inundated by men wishing to find a way to add muscle quickly, but now in excess of 60 per cent of our weekly orders are women wanting products to help with results ranging from fat loss and anti-ageing to general well-being," says owner Michael Abdallah.

These peptides are inhibitors of a protein called myostatin. Myostatin is secreted by muscle cells and acts to essentially block the development of new muscle fibers and, thus, the development of lean muscle mass. In fact, individuals who have mutations in the gene coding for this protein have significantly more muscle mass and enhanced strength. The administration of follastatin peptides can generate enhanced muscle mass and strength, and has been found especially useful in patients suffering from muscle-wasting diseases or who have difficulty gaining muscle.
Several epidemiologic studies have reported lower circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations in obese individuals.12, 14 However, these studies have been observational and confined to a single time point of measurement of natriuretic peptides. To our knowledge, only one previous study has examined the association of obesity with salt‐induced natriuretic peptide concentrations. Licata and colleagues found reduced, salt‐loaded plasma ANP concentrations in 9 obese individuals compared with 10 lean controls.21 They did not examine the influence of weight loss on the natriuretic peptide system. Thus, the present study is the first to provide serial, physiologic data from the same individuals over time.
Amongst its metabolic effects, hGH can induce inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue, stimulating lipolysis in adipocytes, which results in the reduction of fat cell mass [4-7]. Moreover, a correlation has been found between adiposity and the reduced circulating levels of hGH [8]. When applied systemically, hGH reduces body fat mass and influences fat distribution [9]. Therefore, treatment with hGH should theoretically have a positive impact on obesity. However, long term treatment with hGH is associated with various health risks, including glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, diabetes, acromegaly, cancer, edema, and hypertension [10-13].
The matters under subsection 52E (1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 considered relevant by the Committee included: a) the risks and benefits of the use of a substance; b) the purposes for which a substance is to be used and the extent of use of a substance; c) the toxicity of a substance; d) the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance; and f) any other matters that the Secretary considers necessary to protect public health.
The increase in GH secretion due to IPAMORELIN (and other GHRP) leads to an increase in IGF-1 (thought to be the anabolic mechanism of GH).  As we get older GH and subsequently IGF-1 decrease substantially.  This decline is thought to be one of the major causes of the ageing process.  By increasing these levels again there is increased collagen synthesis, promotion of lean muscle mass, bone strength, improved healing capability, improved sleep cycle, increased energy, repair and regeneration of internal organs, strengthening of joints/cartilage/connective tissue, and anti ageing effects on the skin. 

Up to the date of this paper, six clinical trials (three single dose studies and three multiple dose studies from which 2 were long-term studies) have been conducted with AOD9604. In none of the three acute dose-escalating studies (METAOD001 - METAOD003) were there reported any AEs related to the intake of AOD9604, withdrawals from the study caused by AOD9604 or SAEs reported. No treatment related differences were identified upon administration of AOD9604 by IV injection (25 µg - 400 µg/kg bodyweight) or orally (9 mg - 54 mg). Treatment with AOD9604 as a single dosage had no effect on physical examination, vital signs, laboratory parameters, ECG, blood glucose and IGF-1 levels, with results indistinguishable from placebo.

In addition, scientists have observed that those who supplemented with IGF-1 experienced a preponderance of new brain cell growth and new muscle mass and new studies confirmed this to be true, even among individuals with both brain damage and muscle-wasting sarcopenia. Furthermore, research studies have found IGF-1 to increase feelings of youthfulness, improve well-being, and even to alleviate depression.

There is no “one right way”, to use Ipamorelin. For example, if you are using 500 to 1000 mcg doses daily, twice a day, your cycle might run for an 8 week period. If on the other hand, you are an athlete training for a competition, you might be on 3 injections per day, at 300-500 mcg, and will stay on for a 12 week period. For new users, you might find a 300 mcg injection is too high, and you will cut back to 200 mcg until your body gets used to it, for an 8-week cycle.
In the first dose-escalating study (METAOD001) 15 healthy male subjects received 3 single dosages of AOD9604 and placebo as single dosages each separated by a 7-day washout period (range 25 to 400 µg/kg bodyweight; single IV infusion doses over 20 minutes). One subject terminated the study due to personal reasons, 14 subjects completed the study. In total twenty-nine AEs were reported by twelve subjects during the study. No SAEs occurred during this study. The most common AEs reported during the study were headache (6 times). The remainder were related to fatigue (4), hypoglycemia unspecified (3), dizziness (3), nasopharyngitis (2), cough (2) and lethargy, tonsillitis, abdominal pain unspecified, application site reaction unspecified, sore throat unspecified, injection site bruising, rhinitis seasonal, anorexia, injection site pain, all with an incidence of 1. None of the AEs were of severe intensity. The majority of AEs were mild in intensity with possible relationship to study treatment, equally distributed between the various concentrations of AOD9604 and placebo treatment. The adverse event profile was similar following administration of all treatments.

Resting plasma concentrations of mature BNP and Nt‐proBNP were 14±3 pg/mL and 42±9 pg/mL before gastric bypass surgery and increased to 32±5 pg/mL and 107±20 pg/mL (increased by 50% and 31%), respectively (P=0.0009 and 0.0001) after the surgery. Circulating BNP and Nt‐proBNP concentrations during saline infusion were also higher after surgery compared with before surgery (Figures 2A and 2B; P<0.0001). The saline infusion itself was not associated with an increase in BNP or Nt‐proBNP levels at either visit (P=0.65 and 0.60, respectively).
Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is the predominant form of thymosin in our bodies. It has been found in high concentrations in wound tissue and certain blood cells involved in clotting, signifying its important role in the healing process. In fact, recent studies have revealed that the first gene to be upregulated after an injury is the Tβ4 gene. As the body begins the recovery process, Tβ4 aids in the creation of new vessels in the injured area, which carry blood, nutrients, and reparative substances to the site. Tβ4 also has anti-inflammatory properties, and works to decrease the amount of inflammatory substances, called cytokines. Inflammation plays a large role in many of the symptoms associated with a large number of conditions (i.e., Lyme disease, CFS, FM, autoimmune diseases, infections, etc.), making the potential impact of Tβ4 quite extensive.
The effect of AOD9604 and hGH on β3-ARs in adipose tissue is believed to be a direct action of these compounds and not an effect secondary to the fat metabolism, given that both AOD9604 and hGH can influence β3-AR expression and function in a nonadipocyte human cell line (11). Hence, the β3-AR appears to be necessary for the chronic effectiveness of AOD9604 on lipolysis in BAT.

Overall, there were no AEs that were deemed to be “definitely related” to the study treatment. The percentage of AEs that were deemed to be “probably” or “possibly related” to study treatment was similar among all treatment groups including placebo. The most common classes of AE deemed to be “probably” or “possibly”related to study treatment were gastrointestinal disorders (5.2% overall) and nervous system disorders (4.9% overall).

The process to get a cream doesn't happen overnight. Explains Smeath: "A patient will complete a comprehensive medical questionnaire, which is sent to one of our prescribing doctors. [They] review all medical notes, make contact with the patient and once approved, send a prescription to one of two TGA-approved compounding pharmacies in Australia who ship [the peptides] directly."
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