Phenylephrine is a direct alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, with weak alpha-2 adrenergic agonist activity. It also has very weak beta-adrenergic effects, but at therapeutic doses there are no significant stimulating beta-1 adrenergic effects on the heart, or on the bronchial airways, or on peripheral blood vessels. This contrasts with pseudoephedrine, which has greater beta-adrenergic activity. The effect on the alpha-adrenergic receptors leads to local vasoconstriction and shrinking of mucous membranes. There is no anti-histamine effect. The drug is readily and completely absorbed following oral administration, undergoing extensive first pass metabolism in the intestinal wall and in the liver leading to some variability in individual pharmacokinetics. Nasal decongestion is apparent within 15 to 20 minutes and persists for up to 4 hours (AHFS 2007).

The test substance was either administered intravenously (studies METAOD001 and METAOD002) or as a capsule/tablet. The hexadecapeptide AOD9604 was produced under cGMP conditions by PolyPeptide Laboratories (Torrance, CA, USA). For studies 1 and 2, the product was supplied in a lyophilized form and reconstituted before usage with the designated volume of sterile water for intravenous injection. The capsules/tablets were manufactured using a common excipient mix (Capsules: Mannitol, PEG3350 (in studies METAOD003, METAOD004 and METAOD005)); or Tablets: L-Arginine Free Base, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Fumed silica, Magnesium Stearate (in study METAOD006)).

GH levels decrease significantly as one ages. By the time you are 30 years old the endocrine system is no longer functioning optimally, thus the hormones that typically helped us stay lean, are secreting at a much lower level. The result of this is stubborn fat storage, which favours the abdominal region. Visceral fat in particular is a very common plight in middle age.


Whilst AOD9604 is not approved by the Australian TGA, it can be legally obtained on a doctor's prescription and dispensed by a compounding pharmacy (2). This is true of many experimental substances, but it does big favours for the reputation of AOD9604, giving the impression that, like other drugs issued by the medical profession, it is an efficacious and high quality product. These reasons, when considered together, give a powerful impression that peptides are highly effective – they wouldn't ban them for no reason, would they?
In our study, the rapid recovery from lameness (11 days) in the group that received AOD9604 and HA injection suggests that an early anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effect could be induced before the tissue repair observed at the end of the treatment period (35 days). This result may be explained by the pain-relieving effects of GH [30]. The intra-articular injection to the human knee using ultrasound guidance notably enhances the accuracy compared with injection using anatomical guidance [31–33]. Until recently, intra-articular injections to the rabbit knee using ultrasound guidance have rarely been reported [34]. In our study, intra-articular injections were performed using ultrasound guidance to identify the correct trajectory for needle placement in the knee joint, as the rabbit knee joint is smaller than that of humans.

In the multiple dose and long term studies, AOD9604 was well tolerated over the entire dose range. In none of the studies did any drug-related withdrawals or drug-related serious AEs occur. No drug related clinically significant AEs, or changes of clinical significance in vital signs, safety laboratory tests or ECGs were detected during the studies. There were no observable trends in the incidence of AEs between the 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 9 mg and 27 mg AOD9604 and placebo treatment groups. The highest dose administration (54 mg), however, was associated with an increased incidence of GI-related AEs.


Abellan R, Ventura R, Palmi I, di Carlo S, Bacosi A, Bellver M, Olive R, Pascual JA, Pacifici R, Segura J, Zuccaro P, Pichini S. Immunoassays for the measurement of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3, and ICTP as indirect biomarkers of recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. Values in selected population of athletes. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008 Nov 4;48(3):844-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2008.05.037.
Australian owned and operated., Peptide Clinics is fully licensed and registered with our offices located in Sydney, NSW, Australia. Specialising in the production of dr approved, clinical grade peptides, Peptide Clinics Australia guarantees optimal purity and potency of their peptide supplements. Our peptide treatments each come with a Certificate of Analysis, confirming the absence of contaminants. Our online gateway grants you a secure and confidential access to buy peptide supplements online in Australia coupled with expert medical guidance in their safe and efficient use. Our licensed Dr is a renowned expert in his field of anti-ageing, longevity and sports medicine. His supervision and specialisation in peptide supplementation significantly benefit each Peptide Clinic patient in Australia.
×