In plasma, different isoforms and fragments of hGH were found [10]. Research on specific domains and fractions of the protein revealed that they can be assigned to different actions of the protein: In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that several fragments of the amino terminal region of hGH, namely 1-15, 1-42, 6-13, and 32-46, exhibit an insulin-potentiating action [14-16]. The region hGH 108-129 was found to evoke high mitogenic responses [17], while the carboxy terminus hGH177-191 seemed to be a lipid mobilizing domain, inhibiting the acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in adipocytes and hepatocytes [18].

Up to the date of this paper, six clinical trials (three single dose studies and three multiple dose studies from which 2 were long-term studies) have been conducted with AOD9604. In none of the three acute dose-escalating studies (METAOD001 - METAOD003) were there reported any AEs related to the intake of AOD9604, withdrawals from the study caused by AOD9604 or SAEs reported. No treatment related differences were identified upon administration of AOD9604 by IV injection (25 µg - 400 µg/kg bodyweight) or orally (9 mg - 54 mg). Treatment with AOD9604 as a single dosage had no effect on physical examination, vital signs, laboratory parameters, ECG, blood glucose and IGF-1 levels, with results indistinguishable from placebo.
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When using any GHRH, it should always be remembered that positive results cannot be achieved overnight. These compounds act steadily over time, and the best results can be achieved slowly, and with a nutritious diet and a proper exercise regime. Also, these peptides are not sex-specific, so they do not have any androgenic effects. They can be used by women in the same dosages that men do.


The effect of a single daily ip dose of saline, AOD9604, or hGH on body weight changes in lean male C57BL/6J (A) or obese (ob/ob) mice (B) for 14 d. Caloric intake was recorded every second day and presented as an average for each day in lean (C) and obese (D) mice. Results are expressed as the mean ± SE of six animals in each group. *, P< 0.01; #, P < 0.05, compared with saline.
Another benefit of collagen supplementation to your workout routine? Collagen contains high amounts of the amino acid arginine, which changes into nitric oxide to help our blood vessels relax and promote healthy circulation. Additionally, arginine has been found to help promote total strength and recovery in adult males (4). Adding collagen into your daily diet can help keep your bones strong, helping you to stay active and healthy.
Growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP) 2 is a type of peptide therapeutic that mimics the effects of ghrelin, the “hunger hormone”. Ghrelin is a hormone that helps regulate appetite as well as energy distribution and rate of use, or metabolism. In the 1980’s, ghrelin was discovered to be the body’s natural ligand (or binding molecule) of the GHRP receptor in the anterior pituitary. This was a significant discovery, as it highlighted the role of ghrelin in hGH secretion and growth regulation. Modern biotechnology has used this knowledge to develop peptides that can be administered to mimic ghrelin’s hGH stimulation, but in a more targeted fashion. GHRP 2 is one such peptide, stimulating hGH secretion by 7-15 times, increasing appetite and meal initiation, while also decreasing fat mass and cholesterol. GHRP 2 is ideal for patients who are hypercatabolic, due to critical illness, cancer, AIDS, etc. It should be noted that GHRP 2 can also increase levels of prolactin, aldosterone, and cortisol.

At both visits, saline infusion was associated with a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) end‐diastolic volume (P=0.001 for saline effect), whereas LV end‐systolic volume was unchanged. Stroke volume and cardiac output increased in response to saline administration at both pre‐ and post‐bypass visits. The effect of saline infusion on cardiac function did not differ before and after surgery (saline×surgery interaction P values non‐significant).

Injections of other compounds along with IGF-1 (which is a popular practice) can also cause serious health issues. The idea is that after an user administers a GHRP (like Ipamorelin) along with IGF-1, a selective pulse is then sent that stimulates the hypothalamus and pituitary to release even more growth hormone. But this may result in an eventual negative feedback loop that leaves you unable to produce your own growth hormone and stuck on injections forever. GHRP and synthetic HGH use has also been shown to cause joint pain, huge spikes in cortisol, excessive hunger, and splitting headaches.
Up to the date of this paper, six clinical trials (three single dose studies and three multiple dose studies from which 2 were long-term studies) have been conducted with AOD9604. In none of the three acute dose-escalating studies (METAOD001 - METAOD003) were there reported any AEs related to the intake of AOD9604, withdrawals from the study caused by AOD9604 or SAEs reported. No treatment related differences were identified upon administration of AOD9604 by IV injection (25 µg - 400 µg/kg bodyweight) or orally (9 mg - 54 mg). Treatment with AOD9604 as a single dosage had no effect on physical examination, vital signs, laboratory parameters, ECG, blood glucose and IGF-1 levels, with results indistinguishable from placebo.
Meanwhile, more Phase II clinical studies are planned for the next 12 months including a study examining the efficacy of oral administration, which has been shown to be effective in laboratory animals. This will be followed by a weight loss study. Confirmation of the age-effect will also be sought. Metabolic aims to start a two-year Phase III studies program in 2003, which would not place final FDA approval before 2005.

A total of 97 AEs were reported by 17/17 subjects during this study. Most of them were of mild or moderate in intensity, with the exception of two SAEs, one of which (diarrhoea) was deemed “possibly related” to study treatment (54 mg AOD9604) and one (bronchial pneumonia) deemed to be “unrelated” to the study treatment (54 mg AOD9604). The most common adverse event reported was mild or moderate headache followed by events related to the digestive system, specifically diarrhea, flatulence, increased appetite and nausea. There was no observable trend between the AOD9604 groups or the placebo with respect to the incidence. The only event deemed definitely related to the treatment was taste perversion occurring 10 minutes following dose administration of the placebo.
Ultimately, it needs to be trialled in athletes. But that would never happen. As a substance with no therapeutic use, there is no need to ever test it to determine its effect on athletic performance. You don't need the same standard of evidence for drugs like EPO (synthetic replicas of hormones), where the primary biological effect studied in clinical trials of non-athletes is clearly and blatantly performance enhancing. With something like AOD9604, the waters are much murkier with respect to athletic performance.
Both human GH (hGH) and a lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) synthesized from its C-terminus are capable of inducing weight loss and increasing lipolytic sensitivity following long-term treatment in mice. One mechanism by which this may occur is through an interaction with theβ -adrenergic pathway, particularly with theβ 3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we describe how hGH and AOD9604 can reduce body weight and body fat in obese mice following 14 d of chronic ip administration. These results correlate with increases in the level of expression ofβ 3-AR RNA, the major lipolytic receptor found in fat cells. Importantly, both hGH and AOD9604 are capable of increasing the repressed levels of β3-AR RNA in obese mice to levels comparable with those in lean mice. The importance ofβ 3-AR was verified when long-term treatment with hGH and AOD9604 in β3-AR knock-out mice failed to produce the change in body weight and increase in lipolysis that was observed in wild-type control mice. However, in an acute experiment, AOD9604 was capable of increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation in theβ 3-AR knock-out mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the lipolytic actions of both hGH and AOD9604 are not mediated directly through the β3-AR although both compounds increase β3-AR expression, which may subsequently contribute to enhanced lipolytic sensitivity.
Acromegaly is characterized by an excessive amount of articular cartilage in joints caused by excess GH secretion [25]. The tremendously thick articular cartilage in acromegaly can be explained by the local production of IGF-1 in cartilage cells through GH receptors [9,18]. Long-term treatment with GH might induce hypertrophy of the cartilage and changes in the joint geometry because of altered subchondral bone structures. Long-term treatment with GH by local injections may also be associated with various risks, including glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, diabetes, cancer, edema, and hypertension [26–29]. AOD9604 is not an agonist with a high affinity to the GH receptor and does not stimulate the production of IGF-1. Therefore, AOD9604 may be safer than human recombinant GH for the long-term treatment of OA.
If there was a magic pill that could help improve digestion and gut health, erase wrinkles, ease joint pain and give you healthy, thick hair and nails, I would buy it by the truckload. After all, while boosting my overall health is a priority, having shinier hair and minimal crow’s feet is a major bonus. Although there’s no such magic pill, there is a supplement that promises these results and more—collagen peptides.
Time line of collagenase, saline, HA and AOD9604 injection. Collagenase (0.25 mg) was injected in right knee twice on day 1 and 4, respectively. Normal saline 0.6 ml (group 1), HA 6 mg (group 2), AOD9604 0.25 mg (group 3), and AOD9604 0.25mg with HA 6 mg (group 4) were injected in the right knee at 4 weeks after the first collagenase injection. All rabbits were euthanized by CO inhalation at 4 weeks after injection of 4 different solutions.
In the 80 years, scientists have searched different peptides and more particularly GHRH to discern what part was necessary to stimulate the pituitary response. Then in testing Sermorelin as a tool for the process of anti-agingthey found that it was the famous 1-29 chain that was responsible for stimulating the endocrine gland in question. Similarly, many studies have shown that this peptide was similar to GHRH and very well tolerated by the body.
Peptide supplementation is fast becoming Australia’s solution to a variety of health, fitness, and age-related concerns. Peptides have been around long before the recent media brought it to our attention through use in elite sport. The simple science of amino acids linked together, via peptide bonds, brings to life this now common word—peptides. Some of the benefits that peptides can assist you with during your journey to health and wellbeing include:
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