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The β3-AR and actin primers were intron spanning to potentially reveal contaminant genomic DNA (none observed). Reverse primers were labeled before the PCR in a reaction mixture containing 120 pmol oligonucleotide, 70 μCi[γ -33P]ATP (Bresagen, Adelaide, Australia), 1× One-Phor-All Plus buffer (Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden) and 20 U T4 polynucleotide kinase (Pharmacia Biotech) in a volume of 40 μl. Following incubation at 37 C for 30 min, reactions were diluted to 100 μl with H2O and heated at 90 C for 2 min.
Investigators at Monash University discovered that the fat-reducing effects of GH appear to be controlled by a small region near one end of the GH molecule. This region, which consists of amino acids 177-191, is less than 10% of the total size of the GH molecule and appears to have no effect on growth or insulin resistance. It works by mimicking the way natural Growth Hormone regulates fat metabolism but without the adverse effects on blood sugar or growth that is seen with unmodified Growth Hormone.
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But for maintenance of adequate and natural IGF-1 and growth hormone, and to achieve that sweet spot of not becoming to pro-growth while also not becoming a weak, muscle-less noodle, that sweet spot of producing adequate insulin without producing too much, and that sweet spot of increasing cellular repair without letting cellular division get “out of control”, I have indeed been implementing three specific strategies: my IGF-1 “trilogy”.
Several epidemiologic studies have reported lower circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations in obese individuals.12, 14 However, these studies have been observational and confined to a single time point of measurement of natriuretic peptides. To our knowledge, only one previous study has examined the association of obesity with salt‐induced natriuretic peptide concentrations. Licata and colleagues found reduced, salt‐loaded plasma ANP concentrations in 9 obese individuals compared with 10 lean controls.21 They did not examine the influence of weight loss on the natriuretic peptide system. Thus, the present study is the first to provide serial, physiologic data from the same individuals over time.
People who are serious about losing weight or improving physical performance may choose to use some of the controversial peptides. They are generally sold for research purposes, but many injectable forms of peptides have been used by athletes to increase the production of their body’s HGH to achieve increased lean body mass, decreased body fat, and improved recovery time after workouts. Peptides used for these purposes include:
The ACMS recommended listing Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRHs), Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) as well as new individual substance entries for CJC-1295, ipamorelin, pralmorelin (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6, hexarelin and AOD-9604 in Appendix D, Item 5.

Obesity affects as many as one in five adults in developed countries. Metabolic estimates that the potential worldwide market for effective obesity drugs is as much as $20 billion, far more than the current market of $1.5 billion. This is partly due to the potential need for chronically obese people to take obesity drugs such as AOD9604 and also because patients are put off using currently available drugs because of their marginal efficacy or side-effects.
Perhaps. As Dr Larkins weighs in: "It's a different kind of chemical and physiological manipulation that goes way beyond what I'd call conventional hormone therapy. It's the next stage of technology that's come along to try and help people enjoy quality of life." A stage with an effect apparently significant enough to risk a professional athletic career for.

Comparing everything else is hard due to branding... don't want to start going into branding for obvious reasons. GH is incredible for fatloss but some brands add so much water it is hard to see the results to begin with. But due to the high serum and igf-1 from gh excellent results are to be had. Many factors come into play though which I am sure your well aware of. I think the ghrp's (2 and 6 for example) are excellent for fatloss if you keep up with the 4 daily injections in your research. Otherwise they are nowhere as effective due to the short peak times... so one must be organized and disciplined to get the full benefits.
Natriuretic peptide measurements were tested for normality and were logarithmically transformed for analysis. We used paired t tests to examine the change in BMI, blood pressure, and natriuretic peptides before and after surgery. Mixed effect models using all non‐missing data from 18 study subjects were used to assess the effects of surgery and intravenous saline and their interaction on plasma Nt‐proANP, Nt‐proBNP, and mature ANP and BNP levels, as well as echocardiographic measures. To account for repeated measures for each subject, a spatial power structure for ANP. Nt‐proANP, BNP, and Nt‐proBNP, and a completely general (unstructured) covariance matrix for echocardiographic outcomes were used. None of the interactions terms were significant and P values reported are based on models without interaction. A secondary analysis after covariate adjustment for age, sex, and blood pressure was also performed. All analyses were conducted using SAS (Cary, NC). A two‐sided P<0.05 was considered statistically significant for the primary outcome.

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I know so... you demonstrate a severe lack of knowledge of how the compound works which is kinda funny that you came here to big note your self about facts... i agree the substance is grey area PE but your attempt at a cheap shot to sound all informed is flat out wrong... its the crux of the argument as to why everyone is so confused... you have made a complete fool out of your self trying to sound all smart and stuff...

There is much confusion about the significance of the banned peptide at the centre of the AFL doping scandal - and perhaps that is not so surprising. The company behind AOD-9604 knew back in 2007, after six clinical trials of 925 patients, that the drug had completely failed to treat obesity. But after burning through some $50 million developing the drug, Metabolic Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, which owns the patent, has continued to spruik its so-called body-enhancing benefits.
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Ghrelin and GH secretagogues, including GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, stimulate food intake and adiposity. Because insulin modulates the hypothalamic response to GH secretagogues and acts synergistically with ghrelin on lipogenesis in vitro, we analyzed whether insulin plays a role in the metabolic effects of GHRP-6 in vivo. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received saline, GHRP-6, insulin, or insulin plus GHRP-6 once daily for 8 wk. Rats receiving saline suffered hyperglycemia, hyperphagia, polydipsia, and weight loss. Insulin, but not GHRP-6, improved these parameters (P < 0.001 for all), as well as the diabetes-induced increase in hypothalamic mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide and decrease in proopiomelanocortin. Cocaine amphetamine-related transcript mRNA levels were also reduced in diabetic rats, with GHRP-6 inducing a further decrease (P < 0.03) and insulin an increase. Diabetic rats receiving insulin plus GHRP-6 gained more weight and had increased epididymal fat mass and serum leptin levels compared with all other groups (P < 0.001). In epididymal adipose tissue, diabetic rats injected with saline had smaller adipocytes (P < 0.001), decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS; P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.001) and increased hormone sensitive lipase (P < 0.001) and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma mRNA levels (P < 0.01). Insulin normalized these parameters to control values. GHRP-6 treatment increased FAS and glucose transporter-4 gene expression and potentiated insulin's effect on epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size (P < 0.001), FAS (P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, GHRP-6 and insulin exert an additive effect on weight gain and visceral fat mass accrual in diabetic rats, indicating that some of GHRP-6's metabolic effects depend on the insulin/glucose status.


It is well established that hGH is a lipolytic hormone (15), but the exact mechanisms used are still unclear. In this paper we present data that suggest that hGH and its lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) induce their chronic in vivo actions on lipolysis in part by modulating the expression of theβ 3-AR. Human GH has been shown to affect the in vivo expression and function of β-ARs in vivo in sheep (16). Data presented in this paper indicate that chronic administration of hGH influences expression of the β3-AR in adipose tissue in the ob/ob mouse. In brown adipose tissue (BAT), these compounds also increase expression of β3-AR expression in the lean C57BL/6J mouse. The increase in expression induced by chronic hGH or AOD9604 treatment correlated with the decrease in adipose tissue mass. We therefore hypothesize that treatment with either hGH or AOD9604 enhances β3-AR expression, which has been observed in murine 3T3-F442A and human SK-N-MC cells in vitro (11).

If you want to lose weight you’re going to need to keep track of your calories. Don’t just estimate portion sizes – at least in the beginning. You’ll probably be amazed at how little the serving sizes are for many of your favorite foods. You could easily add hundreds of calories to your daily intake by estimating measurements, which can derail your weight loss results. Use a fitness app or calorie tracker to help you stay on track. Some favorites include:


It is well established that hGH is a lipolytic hormone (15), but the exact mechanisms used are still unclear. In this paper we present data that suggest that hGH and its lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) induce their chronic in vivo actions on lipolysis in part by modulating the expression of theβ 3-AR. Human GH has been shown to affect the in vivo expression and function of β-ARs in vivo in sheep (16). Data presented in this paper indicate that chronic administration of hGH influences expression of the β3-AR in adipose tissue in the ob/ob mouse. In brown adipose tissue (BAT), these compounds also increase expression of β3-AR expression in the lean C57BL/6J mouse. The increase in expression induced by chronic hGH or AOD9604 treatment correlated with the decrease in adipose tissue mass. We therefore hypothesize that treatment with either hGH or AOD9604 enhances β3-AR expression, which has been observed in murine 3T3-F442A and human SK-N-MC cells in vitro (11).
We found that osteoarthritic rabbits administered intra-articular AOD9604 injections had better outcomes with lesser morphological and histolopathological damage than was observed in the control group. AOD9604 is a disulphide-constrained peptide that comprises 15 amino acids from the C-terminal sequence of human GH and an additional N-terminal tyrosine residue: YLRIVQCRSVEGSCGF [15]. The exact mechanism underlying the action of GH in OA is unknown. Previous studies have shown that GH can act directly on the growth plate by stimulating local production of IGF-1 and by increasing cartilage metabolism [9,16] and chondrocyte proliferation [17]. Although AOD9604 is not a high-affinity agonist of the GH receptor and does not stimulate the proliferation of cells transfected with the GH receptor, it retains some functions of GH [11]. Initially, AOD9604 was investigated for the treatment of obesity in humans. In rodent models of obesity, AOD9604 showed a similar effect of weight loss as that observed with GH [11]. However, AOD9604 does not induce diabetes and does not stimulate the production of IGF-1 [10].
Prior studies have been largely observational, and based on measurement of natriuretic peptide levels collected in individuals with random salt intake. Because natriuretic peptide levels are dependent on loading conditions, more controlled physiologic data are needed. Accordingly, the aim of the current investigation was to study the natriuretic peptide axis in the context of a well‐controlled physiologic stimulus (intravenous saline infusion) in obese, otherwise healthy, individuals. This study design also enabled us to compare the relative effects of weight loss and intravenous saline infusion on circulating natriuretic peptide levels.

No need to visit a physical peptide clinic, Muscle Peptide Australia can ship throughout Australia: to Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Darwin, Hobart and regional areas. There’s no time like now to begin this journey. Customers can order from our convenient and user-friendly website to get the supplements they need. Send us an e-mail, and our customer service team will be happy to address any questions or concerns you may have. We specialize in offering an affordable and efficient way to stay healthy for good.

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